Anita Spring, Ph.D.
Professor Emerita, Department of Anthropology
Affiliate Faculty, Center for African Studies, Center for Latin American Studies, Center for Women’s Studies & Gender Research, and School of Natural Resources & Environment
UF Mailing Address: 1112 Turlington, PO Box 117305, Gainesville FL 32611-7305
Phone: (352) 376-4833
Cell: (352) 256-1163
Mailing Address for Correspondence: 5707 SW 17th Drive, Gainesville FL 32608
International Agricultural Development; Food Security and Food Sovereignty; Entrepreneurship: Micro-enterprises to Global Business in Africa; Women/Gender in International Development; Women, Agriculture and Land, Environment and Resource Management; Chinese in Africa; Applied Cultural Anthropology; Extensive International Experience
Positions and Honors
Positions and Employment
University of Florida
2015-2018: Co-Director China-in-Africa Working Group
2010-2014: Director: Sub-Saharan Business Environment Project
2009-present: Retired, Professor Emerita, University of Florida
1985-1988: Associate Dean, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Oversight of international programs (oversight of African Studies, Asian Studies, Jewish Studies, Greek Studies, etc.), interdisciplinary programs (oversight of Women’s Studies, Gerontology, etc.); academic overseas student programs; undergraduate and graduate curriculum, affirmative action
1984-1986: Director, Women in Agricultural Development Program. Speakers’ series, Bibliographic database, curricular activities, International conference on Gender Issues and Farming Systems Research, fund raising
1979-1981, 1983-1984, 1993-1994: Associate Chair, Department of Anthropology
1979: Director, Summer Institute on African Studies for Teachers and Educators
1978-1992: Associate Professor, Dept. of Anthropology and African Studies
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
1988-1991: Chief, Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service. Oversight of FAO’s global operation on women in development, supervision of projects and design of major policy documents. Policy advice to Member Governments, training on Gender Analysis (over 700 senior officers of the FAO trained); women and the environment; development of statistical indicators and database on gender and development; formulation and backstopping of field projects; home economics programs; population and WID; raising funds for projects by working with donors and other United Nations agencies. (LEVEL: D-1)
USAID/Office of Women in Development
1981-1983: Chief of Party, Women in Agricultural Development Project in Malawi (WIADP), a national project. Oversight of farming systems research, extension and institution building components carried out through the Ministry of Agriculture. In 1985, the WIADP was evaluated as the best project that USAID had carried out for the inclusion of women in its agricultural projects in the decade for women, and was the subject of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Report on Science radio broadcast in 1983.
Other Experience and Professional Memberships
Quality Control Chemist, Oxford Chemical Company, Atlanta GA
Museum Curator: Museum of Anthropology, San Francisco State University
President: Culture and Agriculture, American Anthropological Association, 2009-2011
President Assoc. for Africanist Anthropology, American Anthropological Association, 2012-2016
Spring, Anita, Robert Rolfe, and Levy Odera. Sub-Saharan Business Environment 2012-2013. Gainesville, FL CIBER: 2014.
Spring, Anita, Robert Rolfe, and Gregory Parent. Sub-Saharan Business Environment 2011. Gainesville, FL CIBER: 2012.
Nelson Santos António, Virgínia Trigo, Anita Spring et. al. China and Portuguese Speaking Africa: Business Approaches and Management Models in China, Mozambique and Cape Verde. Lisbon: Ed. Silabo. 2011.
Spring, Anita. ed. Women Farmers and Commercial Ventures: Increasing Food Security in Developing Countries. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers. 417 pp., 2000.
Spring, Anita and Barbara McDade, eds. African Entrepreneurship: Theory and Reality. University Press of Florida. 331 pp. 1998.
Steven Brandt, Anita Spring, et al. The Tree Against Hunger: Enset-Based Agricultural Systems in Ethiopia. Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1997.
Spring, Anita. Agricultural Development and Gender Issues in Malawi. Lanham, and London: University Press of America. 316 pp. 1995.
Poats, Susan, Marianne Schmink, and Anita Spring, eds. Gender Issues and Farming Systems Research and Extension. Boulder and London: Westview Press. 450 pp. 1988.
Gallin, Rita and Anita Spring, eds. Women Creating Wealth: Transforming Economic Development. Washington, DC Association for Women in Development. 185 pp. 1985.
Spring, Anita. The Entrepreneurial Landscape for African Women. In Anne Coles, Leslie Gray, and Janet Momsen, eds. The Routledge Handbook of Gender and Development, London and New York: Routledge. 2015. pp. 465-478.
Spring, Anita and Lettice Kinunda Rutashobya. Women Entrepreneurs Drive Prosperity: What Hinders Them? Legatum Prosperity Report 2014. pp. 23-26.
Spring, Anita, Robert Rolfe, and Levy Odera,. The Sub-Saharan Africa Business Environment, 2012-2013: Development and Sustainability in Africa Business. In P.D. Rwelamila and Anita Spring, eds. Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development, 2014.
Spring, Anita. Africa’s 2012-13 Findings: The Sub-Saharan Business Environment. In E. Obuah, ed. Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development, 2013.
Spring, Anita and Yang Jiao. Transnational Migration and the Business Environment of the Chinese in Ghana. In E. Obuah, ed. Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development, 2013.
Spring, Anita. Africa’s Open for Business: The Sub-Saharan Business Environment, 2011 Findings. In E. Obuah, ed. Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development, 2012. pp.197-207.
Ndhlovu, Tidings and Spring, Anita. The Hopeful Continent: Economic Development and the Rise of Sub-Saharan Africa’s Performance. In E. Obuah, editor, Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development, 2012. Pp. 89-99.
Spring, Anita. The Sub-Saharan Business Environment Report: Business Information at a Ready Glance. In E. Obuah, editor, Challenges in the Era of Globalization Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development. pp.370-376. 2011.
Spring, Anita. Chinese Development Aid and Agribusiness in Africa. Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development. Pp.1-12. 2009.
Spring, Anita, and Lettice Kinunda Rutashobya, eds. Special Issue: Gender and Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal of African Business. Vol. 10. N0. 1, 2009.
Spring, Anita. Empowering Women in the African Entrepreneurial Landscape. In M. Ndulo, ed. Power, Gender and Social Change in Africa. New Castle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 293-326. 2009.
Spring, Anita. African Women in the Entrepreneurial Landscape: Reconsidering the Formal and Informal Sectors. Journal of African Business. 10: 1: 11-30. 2009.
Ndhlovu, Tiding and Anita Spring. South African Women in Business and Management. Journal of African Business. 10: 1: 31-49. 2009.
Spring, Anita. The West African Enterprise Network: Business Globalists, Interregional Trade and U.S. Interventions. In A. Jalloh and T. Falola, eds. The United States and West Africa: Interactions and Relations. U. of Rochester Press. Pp. 305-324. 2008.
Spring, Anita and Robert Rugimbana. Microfinance and Microsavings for African Women. International Journal of Non-profit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 14:1-7, 2008.
Spring, Anita. African Women in the Entrepreneurial Landscape: Reconsidering the Formal and Informal Sectors. Cadernos de Estudos Africanos No. 9:6:56-72. 2008.
Spring, Anita and Yang Jiao. China in Africa: African Views of Chinese Investments and Entrepreneurship. Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development. 2008, Pp. 55-64. 2008.
McDade, Barbara and Anita Spring. “The New Generation of African Entrepreneurs: Changing the Environment for Business Development and Economic Growth.” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 17:1:1-26. 2005.
Spring, Anita. “Gender and the Range of Entrepreneurial Strategies: The Typical and the New African Woman Entrepreneur.” In A. Jalloh and T. Falola, eds. Black Business and Economic Power. Rochester: University of Rochester Press. pp. 381-401. 2002. Reprinted 2008. In Janet Momsen, ed. Gender and Development: Critical Concepts. Oxford: Routledge.
Spring, Anita. “Agricultural Commercialization: Its Positive Effects on African Women Farmers.” Development Economics and Policy. Vol. 23: 13-36. 2001.
Spring, Anita. “Gender Issues and Farming Systems Research,” Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Enset Cultivation. S. Brandt, T. Abata, and C. Hiebsh, eds. Addis Ababa: Institute of Agricultural Research. 1996.
Spring, Anita. “Gender and Environment: Some Methods for Extension Specialists,” Training for Agriculture and Rural Development. Rome: FAO. 1996.
Spring, Anita. “Guidelines for Evaluating the Inclusion of Women and Gender in Development Projects,” Forum Valutazione, No. 5, Rome, Italy. pp. 57-72. 1993.
Spring, Anita. “Women Farmers, Structural Adjustment and FAO’s Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development with V. Wilde. In C. Gladwin, Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers. Univ. of Florida Press. pp. 387-408. 1991.
Spring, Anita. “Profiles of Men and Women Smallholder Farmers in Malawi,” in R. Huss-Ashmore and S. Katz, eds. African Food Systems in Crisis. Part Two: Contending with Change. New York: Gordon and Breach. pp. 107-136. 1990.
Spring, Anita. “FAO’s Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development and its Relation to INGOs,” International Federation for Home Economics, 265: 4:34-35. 1989.
Spring, Anita. “Putting Women in The Development Agenda: Agricultural Development in Malawi.” In D. Brokensha and P. Little, eds. Anthropology and Development in East Africa. Boulder: Westview Press. pp. 13-42. 1988.
Spring, Anita. “FSR/E, Development Indicators and Food Self-Sufficiency at the Household Level.” How Systems Work: Proceedings of the Farming Systems Research Symposium 1987. University of Arkansas and Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development. pp. 155-177. 1987
Spring, Anita. “Using Male Research and Extension Personnel to Target Women Farmers.” Proceedings of the Kansas State University Farming Systems Research Symposium 1985. No. 8, pp. 123-142, 1986. Reprinted elsewhere in 1987 and 1988.
Spring, Anita. “Women Farmers and Food in Africa Issues: Some Considerations and Suggested Solutions” In A. Hansen and D. McMillan, eds. Food in Sub-Saharan Africa. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, pp. 332-348, 1986. Reprinted elsewhere in 1987.
Spring, Anita. “Men and Women Participants in a Stallfeeder Livestock Program in Malawi,” Human Organization 45:1:154-162. 1986.
Spring, Anita. “Reaching Female Farmers through Male Extension Workers.” in Training for Agriculture and Rural Development. Rome: FAO/UNESCO/ILO, No. 38, pp. 11-20. 1986. (Also French and Spanish versions).
Spring, Anita. “Trials and Errors: Using Farming Systems Research in Agricultural Programs for Women” in J. Jones and B. Wallace, eds. Applying Social Science in Farming Systems Research. Boulder: Westview Press, pp. 129-150. 1986
Spring, Anita. “The Women in Agricultural Development Project: Making Gender Free Development Work.” in R. Gallin and A. Spring, eds. Women Creating Wealth: Transforming Economic Development. Washington, DC, Association for Women in Development. pp. 60-66. 1985.
Spring, Anita, and Art Hansen. “The Underside of Development: Agricultural Development and Women in Northwest Zambia.” in Agriculture and Human Values, 2:1:60-67. 1985.
Spring, Anita. “The Apprenticeship System in Northwest Zambia.” in B. du Toit and I. Abdullah, eds. African Healing Strategies. New York: Trado-Medico Books, 135-150. 1985.
Spring, Anita. “Men and Women Participants in a Stallfeeder Livestock Program in Malawi,” (unrevised version) in C. Flora, ed. Proceedings of Kansas State University’s 1983 Farming Research Symposium. No. 6. pp. 726-742. 1984.
Spring, Anita. “Reaching Female Farmers through the Male Extension Staff.” in Extension Aids Circular. Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi. 1983.
Spring, Anita. “Women and Men as Refugees: Differential Assimilation of Angolans in Zambia.” in A. Hansen and A. Oliver-Smith, eds. Involuntary Migration and Resettlement: the Problems and Responses of Dislocated Peoples. Boulder: Westview Press. pp. 37-47. 1982.
Spring, Anita. “Women and Men as Refugees: Differential Assimilation of Angolans in Zambia, Disasters: The International Journal of Disaster Studies and Practice. 3:4:423-438. 1978.