Professor Emerita, Department of Anthropology
Affiliate Faculty, Center for African Studies, Center for Latin American Studies, Center for Women’s Studies & Gender Research, and School of Natural Resources & Environment
UF Mailing Address: 1112 Turlington, PO Box 117305, Gainesville FL 32611-7305
Phone: (352) 376-4833
Cell: (352) 256-1163
Mailing Address for Correspondence: 5707 SW 17th Drive, Gainesville FL 32608
International Agricultural Development; Food Security and Food Sovereignty; Entrepreneurship: Micro-enterprises to Global Business in Africa; Women/Gender in International Development; Women, Agriculture and Land, Environment and Resource Management; Chinese in Africa; Applied Cultural Anthropology; Extensive International Experience
Positions and Honors
Positions and Employment
University of Florida
2015-present: Co-Director China-in-Africa Working Group
2010-2014: Director: Sub-Saharan Business Environment Project
2009-present: Retired, Professor Emerita, University of Florida
1985-1988: Associate Dean, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Oversight of international programs (oversight of African Studies, Asian Studies, Jewish Studies, Greek Studies, etc.), interdisciplinary programs (oversight of Women’s Studies, Gerontology, etc.); academic overseas student programs; undergraduate and graduate curriculum, affirmative action
1984-1986: Director, Women in Agricultural Development Program. Speakers’ series, Bibliographic database, curricular activities, International conference on Gender Issues and Farming Systems Research, fund raising
1979-1981, 1983-1984, 1993-1994: Associate Chair, Department of Anthropology
1979: Director, Summer Institute on African Studies for Teachers and Educators
1978-1992: Associate Professor, Dept. of Anthropology and African Studies
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
1988-1991: Chief, Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service. Oversight of FAO’s global operation on women in development, supervision of projects and design of major policy documents. Policy advice to Member Governments, training on Gender Analysis (over 700 senior officers of the FAO trained); women and the environment; development of statistical indicators and database on gender and development; formulation and backstopping of field projects; home economics programs; population and WID; raising funds for projects by working with donors and other United Nations agencies. (LEVEL: D-1)
USAID/Office of Women in Development
1981-1983: Chief of Party, Women in Agricultural Development Project in Malawi (WIADP), a national project. Oversight of farming systems research, extension and institution building components carried out through the Ministry of Agriculture. In 1985, the WIADP was evaluated as the best project that USAID had carried out for the inclusion of women in its agricultural projects in the decade for women, and was the subject of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Report on Science radio broadcast in 1983.
Other Experience and Professional Memberships
Quality Control Chemist, Oxford Chemical Company, Atlanta GA
Museum Curator: Museum of Anthropology, San Francisco State University
President: Culture and Agriculture, American Anthropological Association, 2009-2011
President Assoc. for Africanist Anthropology, American Anthropological Association, 2012-2016
Spring, Anita, Robert Rolfe, and Levy Odera. Sub-Saharan Business Environment 2012-2013. Gainesville, FL CIBER: 2014.
Spring, Anita, Robert Rolfe, and Gregory Parent. Sub-Saharan Business Environment 2011. Gainesville, FL CIBER: 2012.
Nelson Santos António, Virgínia Trigo, Anita Spring et. al. China and Portuguese Speaking Africa: Business Approaches and Management Models in China, Mozambique and Cape Verde. Lisbon: Ed. Silabo. 2011.
Spring, Anita. ed. Women Farmers and Commercial Ventures: Increasing Food Security in Developing Countries. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers. 417 pp., 2000.
Spring, Anita and Barbara McDade, eds. African Entrepreneurship: Theory and Reality. University Press of Florida. 331 pp. 1998.
Steven Brandt, Anita Spring, et al. The Tree Against Hunger: Enset-Based Agricultural Systems in Ethiopia. Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1997.
Spring, Anita. Agricultural Development and Gender Issues in Malawi. Lanham, and London: University Press of America. 316 pp. 1995.
Poats, Susan, Marianne Schmink, and Anita Spring, eds. Gender Issues and Farming Systems Research and Extension. Boulder and London: Westview Press. 450 pp. 1988.
Gallin, Rita and Anita Spring, eds. Women Creating Wealth: Transforming Economic Development. Washington, DC Association for Women in Development. 185 pp. 1985.
Spring, Anita and Kimberly Swallow. “Feed the Future Learning Agenda Literature Review: Improved Gender Integration and Women’s Empowerment.” USAID. 2015.
Spring, Anita. The Entrepreneurial Landscape for African Women. In Anne Coles, Leslie Gray, and Janet Momsen, eds. The Routledge Handbook of Gender and Development, London and New York: Routledge. 2015. pp. 465-478.
Spring, Anita and Lettice Kinunda Rutashobya. Women Entrepreneurs Drive Prosperity: What Hinders Them? Legatum Prosperity Report 2014. pp. 23-26.
Spring, Anita, Robert Rolfe, and Levy Odera. The Sub-Saharan Africa Business Environment, 2012-2013: Development and Sustainability in Africa Business. In P.D. Rwelamila and Anita Spring, eds. Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development, 2014.
Lal, Rattan Anita Spring, and Ross Welsh. Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (SANREM) External Evaluation Phase IV (2009-2014). USAID/Bureau of Food Security. 2013. pp. 134.
Spring, Anita. Africa’s 2012-13 Findings: The Sub-Saharan Business Environment. In E. Obuah, ed. Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development, 2013.
Spring, Anita and Yang Jiao. Transnational Migration and the Business Environment of the Chinese in Ghana. In E. Obuah, ed. Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development, 2013.
Spring, Anita. Africa’s Open for Business: The Sub-Saharan Business Environment, 2011 Findings. In E. Obuah, ed. Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development, 2012. pp.197-207.
Ndhlovu, Tidings and Spring, Anita. The Hopeful Continent: Economic Development and the Rise of Sub-Saharan Africa’s Performance. In E. Obuah, editor, Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development, 2012. pp. 89-99.
Spring, Anita. The Sub-Saharan Business Environment Report: Business Information at a Ready Glance. In E. Obuah, editor, Challenges in the Era of Globalization Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development. pp.370-376. 2011.
Spring, Anita. Chinese Development Aid and Agribusiness in Africa. Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development. pp.1-12. 2009.
Spring, Anita, and Lettice Kinunda Rutashobya, eds. Special Issue: Gender and Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal of African Business. Vol. 10. N0. 1, 2009.
Spring, Anita. Empowering Women in the African Entrepreneurial Landscape. In M. Ndulo, ed. Power, Gender and Social Change in Africa. New Castle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 293-326. 2009.
Spring, Anita. African Women in the Entrepreneurial Landscape: Reconsidering the Formal and Informal Sectors. Journal of African Business. 10: 1: 11-30. 2009.
Ndhlovu, Tiding and Anita Spring. South African Women in Business and Management. Journal of African Business. 10: 1: 31-49. 2009.
Spring, Anita. The West African Enterprise Network: Business Globalists, Interregional Trade and U.S. Interventions. In A. Jalloh and T. Falola, eds. The United States and West Africa: Interactions and Relations. University of Rochester Press. Pp. 305-324. 2008.
Spring, Anita and Robert Rugimbana. Microfinance and Microsavings for African Women. International Journal of Non-profit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 14:1-7, 2008.
Spring, Anita. African Women in the Entrepreneurial Landscape: Reconsidering the Formal and Informal Sectors. Cadernos de Estudos Africanos No. 9:6:56-72. 2008.
Spring, Anita and Yang Jiao. China in Africa: African Views of Chinese Investments and Entrepreneurship. Proceedings of the International Academy of African Business & Development. 2008, Pp. 55-64. 2008.
McDade, Barbara and Anita Spring. “The New Generation of African Entrepreneurs: Changing the Environment for Business Development and Economic Growth.” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 17:1:1-26. 2005.
Spring, Anita. “Gender and the Range of Entrepreneurial Strategies: The Typical and the New African Woman Entrepreneur.” In A. Jalloh and T. Falola, eds. Black Business and Economic Power. Rochester: University of Rochester Press. pp. 381-401. 2002. Reprinted 2008. In Janet Momsen, ed. Gender and Development: Critical Concepts. Oxford: Routledge.
Spring, Anita. “Agricultural Commercialization: Its Positive Effects on African Women Farmers.” Development Economics and Policy. Vol. 23: 13-36. 2001.
Spring, Anita. “Gender Issues and Farming Systems Research,” Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Enset Cultivation. S. Brandt, T. Abata, and C. Hiebsh, eds. Addis Ababa: Institute of Agricultural Research. 1996.
Spring, Anita. “Gender and Environment: Some Methods for Extension Specialists,” Training for Agriculture and Rural Development. Rome: FAO. 1996.
Spring, Anita. “Guidelines for Evaluating the Inclusion of Women and Gender in Development Projects,” Forum Valutazione, No. 5, Rome, Italy. pp. 57-72. 1993.
Spring, Anita. “Women Farmers, Structural Adjustment and FAO’s Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development with V. Wilde. In C. Gladwin, Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers. Univ. of Florida Press. pp. 387-408. 1991.
Spring, Anita. “Profiles of Men and Women Smallholder Farmers in Malawi,” in R. Huss-Ashmore and S. Katz, eds. African Food Systems in Crisis. Part Two: Contending with Change. New York: Gordon and Breach. pp. 107-136. 1990.
Spring, Anita. “FAO’s Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development and its Relation to INGOs,” International Federation for Home Economics, 265: 4:34-35. 1989.
Spring, Anita. “Putting Women in The Development Agenda: Agricultural Development in Malawi.” In D. Brokensha and P. Little, eds. Anthropology and Development in East Africa. Boulder: Westview Press. pp. 13-42. 1988.
Spring, Anita. “FSR/E, Development Indicators and Food Self-Sufficiency at the Household Level.” How Systems Work: Proceedings of the Farming Systems Research Symposium 1987. University of Arkansas and Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development. pp. 155-177. 1987
Spring, Anita. “Using Male Research and Extension Personnel to Target Women Farmers.” Proceedings of the Kansas State University Farming Systems Research Symposium 1985. No. 8, pp. 123-142, 1986. Reprinted elsewhere in 1987 and 1988.
Spring, Anita. “Women Farmers and Food in Africa Issues: Some Considerations and Suggested Solutions” In A. Hansen and D. McMillan, eds. Food in Sub-Saharan Africa. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, pp. 332-348, 1986. Reprinted elsewhere in 1987.
Spring, Anita. “Men and Women Participants in a Stallfeeder Livestock Program in Malawi,” Human Organization 45:1:154-162. 1986.
Spring, Anita. “Reaching Female Farmers through Male Extension Workers.” in Training for Agriculture and Rural Development. Rome: FAO/UNESCO/ILO, No. 38, pp. 11-20. 1986. (Also French and Spanish versions).
Spring, Anita. “Trials and Errors: Using Farming Systems Research in Agricultural Programs for Women” in J. Jones and B. Wallace, eds. Applying Social Science in Farming Systems Research. Boulder: Westview Press, pp. 129-150. 1986
Spring, Anita. “The Women in Agricultural Development Project: Making Gender Free Development Work.” in R. Gallin and A. Spring, eds. Women Creating Wealth: Transforming Economic Development. Washington, DC, Association for Women in Development. pp. 60-66. 1985.
Spring, Anita, and Art Hansen. “The Underside of Development: Agricultural Development and Women in Northwest Zambia.” in Agriculture and Human Values, 2:1:60-67. 1985.
Spring, Anita. “The Apprenticeship System in Northwest Zambia.” in B. du Toit and I. Abdullah, eds. African Healing Strategies. New York: Trado-Medico Books, 135-150. 1985.
Spring, Anita. “Men and Women Participants in a Stallfeeder Livestock Program in Malawi,” (unrevised version) in C. Flora, ed. Proceedings of Kansas State University’s 1983 Farming Research Symposium. No. 6. pp. 726-742. 1984.
Spring, Anita. “Reaching Female Farmers through the Male Extension Staff.” in Extension Aids Circular. Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi. 1983.
Spring, Anita. “Women and Men as Refugees: Differential Assimilation of Angolans in Zambia.” in A. Hansen and A. Oliver-Smith, eds. Involuntary Migration and Resettlement: the Problems and Responses of Dislocated Peoples. Boulder: Westview Press. pp. 37-47. 1982.
Spring, Anita. “Women and Men as Refugees: Differential Assimilation of Angolans in Zambia, Disasters: The International Journal of Disaster Studies and Practice. 3:4:423-438. 1978.
(I= Invited; R = Refereed papers)
China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in Africa: Which Railways, Highways, Airports and Ports? Which Chinese Companies? Conference on BRI, University of Florida April 2019. (I) (R)
Tales of Resistance, Resilience, and Adaptation: From Whence and to Where for Africanist Anthropology, on the 25th Anniversary of the AfAA (I), San Jose, November 2018.
Conversations on Fieldwork and Research, American Anthropological Association Annual Meeting, San Jose November 2018.
Famines and Food Crises in Africa: Causes, Consequences and Remediation: How Anthropologists Are Responding? Washington DC December 2017.
Distinguished Lecture: What Helps or Hinders African Women in the Marketplace? Micro-to-Global Enterprises. Association for Africanist Anthropology, American Anthropological Association annual meeting, Minneapolis, November 19, 2016 (I)
Round Table: The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and Food Security. American Anthropological Association annual meeting, Minneapolis, November 20, 2016
Plenary speaker: African Women Entrepreneurs: Barriers and Successes in Micro-Large-Scale Enterprises. Centre for Business and Development Studies, Copenhagen, April 6, 2016 (I)
Women and Agriculture Mandates at FAO: History, Training and Monitoring, Global Institute, University of Basel, Switzerland, August 28, 2014
Food Security: Gendered and Non-gendered from Small-scale to Commercial Agriculture International Congress of Anthropological and Ethological Sciences, Tokyo, Japan. May 17, 2014. Delivered via Skype
Agricultural Innovation in Africa: Gendered and Non-gendered Paradigm Shifts. Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, November 18, 2013. (I)
Plenary speaker: Food Security & Agricultural Innovation: Gendered & Non-gendered. Scientific, Spiritual, and Moral Challenges in Solving the World Food Crisis. Institute on Religion in an Age of Science. Silver Bay, New York. July 24, 2013. (I, R)
Chinese Migration to Sub-Saharan Africa: Chinese Business Endeavors and African Reactions. University of Urbino, Urbino, Italy, March 2013. (I)
Black History Month Plenary speaker: Chinese Migration and the Business Environment in Ghana: A New Diaspora to Sub-Saharan Africa. University of California, San Diego, February 2013. (I)
African Women on Corporate Boards, African Development Conference, Univ. of Kansas, October 2, 2009. (I, R)
Committee on Sustainable Development (CSD 17), United Nations, New York
Women, Land and Commercial Ventures in Africa. May 9, 2009. (I)
“Decent Work”, Livelihood Strategies, and the Environment.” XVI ISA World Congress of Sociology. RC-40: Sociology of Agriculture and Food Durban, South Africa. July 26, 2006. (R)
“Empowering Women in the African Entrepreneurial Landscape: Microentrepreneurs to Business Globalists in the Informal and Formal Sectors.” Cornell University. April 21, 2006
“Paradigms of African Entrepreneurship in the Formal to Informal Sectors.”
African Studies Center, Lisbon, Portugal. December 8, 2005. (I)
“The West African Enterprise Network: Business Globalists, Interregional Trade and U.S. Interventions. University of Texas, Arlington, Conference on U.S. and West Africa.” April 29, 2005. (I, R)
Plenary Speaker “Investing in Women Entrepreneurs to Help Economic Development.”, University of Asmara, Eritrea Research Symposium. June 2002. (I)
INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY OF AFRICAN BUSINESS & DEVELOPMENT (R)
Plenary speaker “Getting Business Information at a Ready Glace: The Sub-Saharan Business Environment Report Updates.” International Academy of African Business and Development. Bridgetown, Barbados. May 29, 2014 (I, R)
Plenary speaker “The Sub-Saharan Business Environment Report 2012-2013 Findings.” International Academy of African Business and Development. Accra, Ghana. May 15, 2013 (I, R)
“The Sub-Saharan Business Environment, 2011 Findings.” El Jadida, Morocco. May 2012. (R)
Plenary speaker “Sub-Saharan Business Environment: Indicators for the 20 Largest Economies.” Edmonton, Canada. May 27, 2011. (I, R)
“Chinese and Agribusiness in Africa.” Kampala, Uganda, 2009. (R)
“China in Africa: African Views of Chinese Investments and Entrepreneurship.” (with Yang Jiao). Gainesville, May 21, 2008. (R)
“Conventional and Global African Women Entrepreneurs: Modeling the Similarities and Differences.” London, May 31, 2007. (R)
“The Entrepreneurial Landscape in Africa: Reconsidering Women in the Formal and Informal Sectors.” Accra, Ghana, May 25, 2006. (R)
“African Women Entrepreneurs: Micro levels to Globalists.” Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. April 6, 2005. (R)
“The Chinese in Ghana and Mozambique: Migration and Investment Strategies.” American Anthropological Association, Denver, November 2015 (R)
Food Security: 2014 International Year of Family Farming”. Gendered and Non-gendered from Small-scale to Commercial Agriculture, American Anthropological Association, Washington DC, December 2014 (R)
“Public and Private Business Environments and Transnational Migration of the Chinese in Ghana.” Chicago, November 2013 (R)
Women, Agriculture and Climate Change.” American Anthropological Association San Francisco, November 2012 (I)
“Food Actors: Victors and Victims in Ethiopia.” American Anthropological Association Montreal, Canada. November 2011 (R)
“Chinese and Tanzanian economic interactions: Studying transnational south-south migration and its effects on trade and economic opportunities? ” With Christine Avenarius. 2010. New Orleans (R)
“Food Security, Food Sovereignty & Land Grabs in Africa.” 2010. American Anthropological Association, New Orleans (R)
“Food Security & Land Grabs for Agriculture”. American Anthropological Association
Philadelphia, December 2009 (R)
“China in Africa: Agricultural Assistance and Agribusiness.” San Francisco, 2008.
“Ester Boserup’s WID Paradigm Based on Agriculture: Can We Revise It Now?” Washington. November 29, 2007 (R, I)
“Commercial Ventures for African Women Farmers: Was Boserup Always Right?” San Jose Calif. November 19, 2006.
“The Entrepreneurial Landscape: Informal to Formal Sector Models.” Washington. December 1, 2004 (R)
International Activities and Field Work
Research and fieldwork were carried out in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Jamaica, Kenya, Malawi, Somalia, St. Lucia, Senegal, South Africa, Swaziland, Uganda, and Zambia. Development projects were designed, implemented, and evaluated in Botswana, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cambodia, India, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Somalia, Swaziland, Thailand, and Zimbabwe. Policy advice was provided to governments in Chile, Malawi, Norway, Somalia, and Thailand. International conferences were attended in Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, El Salvador, Germany, Italy, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, the Netherlands, Norway, and Trinidad. My Fulbright was in Ethiopia. Training and workshops were carried out in Barbados, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Netherlands, and St. Lucia. Universities were contacted for exchange and other programs in Cameroon, Eritrea, Ghana, Jamaica, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda.
Farming Systems R&D and Participatory Appraisals with Smallholder Farmers
Training of Professional Staff that was followed by in-depth work with women and men smallholder farmers: Ethiopia, Jamaica, Kenya, Malawi, St. Lucia, Swaziland
- Women Entrepreneurs and Policy, 2006
- Income Production Projects for Women, 1987
- University Curriculum and Agricultural Development, 1980
- Health Care and Health Delivery Systems; Enterprise Development; Demobilized Soldiers, 2002
- Civil Society, Gender, and Democracy and Governance, 2004
- African Entrepreneurs in the Global Marketplace, 2000
- Food Security with Enset-based Agricultural systems:1993, 1996-97
- Conservation Agriculture Production Systems. 2013
- Chinese and African entrepreneurs. 2012
- Micro-finance; E-commerce and Entrepreneurship, 2006
- The New Generation of African Entrepreneurs in the Global Marketplace, 2000
- Universities in Ghana, 1977
- Women and commercial agriculture. 2006
- The New Generation of African Entrepreneurs in the Global Marketplace, 2001
- Agricultural Commercialization and Gender Roles, 1996
Ivory Coast (Cote d’Ivoire)
- International Conference on Market Towns 1989, Part 2 USAID
- International Conference on Market Towns, 1988 Part 1 USAID
- Mainstreaming Women’s Programs with a focus on Credit,1990
- Agricultural Development, Farming Systems Research and Extension, Policy, Training, Curriculum Enhancement, Women’s Programs, 1981-1983
- The economy after the War, 1992
- Entrepreneurs in the Formal Sector, New Generation of African Entrepreneurs in the Global Marketplace 2009
- The New Generation of African Entrepreneurs in the Global Marketplace, 2003
- Islam in West Africa, 2003
- Agricultural Development and Women’s Programs, 1987
- Decent Work research 2006
- State of Florida Trade Mission, also University Exchange programs 2001
- The New Generation of African Entrepreneurs in the Global Marketplace, 2000, 2006
- Commercial Agriculture and Marketing, 1993
Farming systems Rapid Rural Appraisal, 1993
- The New Generation of African Entrepreneurs in the Global Marketplace, 2005
- Entrepreneurs in the formal sector, 2009
- The New Generation of African Entrepreneurs in the Global Marketplace, 2001
- Makerere University, 1970
- Food and Agriculture Organization documents, 1998
- Infant and Maternal Health, 1977
- Traditional Religious and Health Care Systems, 1970 to 1972
- Income Production Projects for Women, 1987
CARIBBEAN AND SOUTH AMERICA
- 2014, Updates
- Deliver Training on Women in Agricultural and Farming Systems, 1984, 1985
- Mainstreaming Women’s Programs, 1990
- FAO Interagency Meeting for Latin America, 1991
- Conservation Agriculture Production Systems. 2013
- Environmental Contaminants and Human Activities, 1994-1995
- Participatory Rural Appraisals, Curriculum Development, 2000
- Conservation Agriculture Production Systems, 2013
- Watershed Management and Farming Systems, 1989
- International Conference on Ethiopia, 1997
- Farming Systems, 1989; 2013
- Commission on the Status of Women and Inter-Agency Meetings for FAO, 1989-1991
- World Conference of Women and Trade Unions, 1989
- European Commission on Agriculture, Women and the Rural Family, 1989
- University of Bonn and GFZ, Women and Agriculture, 1999
- Expert Consultation on Women and Food Production, 1993
- FAO, 1988-92, 2002, 2004, etc.
- Training in Gender Analysis (Bergen), 1991
- World Conference of Farmers (Trondheim), 1989
- Government of Norway Women in Development in the UN system (Oslo), 1990
- Global Consortium on Gender, Waginingen, 1998
- Guest of Government to visit training institutes and universities, 1989